Joe’s Jotter: Two Underused Revision Hacks for Success

Students,

As Christmas exam time draws closer, here are two under-rated hacks that might just give you the edge as you try to get the most out of upcoming revision time.

  1. Record yourself

With so many portable digital devices to play content on now, recording audio is a great option being availed of now by many students. This is an excellent revision hack if you have long commutes or spend a lot of time in the car. Playing back notes you have recorded is a very successful method of retaining information. I have recorded questions and answers for job interviews previously, where I called out a possible interview question and then proceeded to answer it as best I could. Recording information on various subjects has been helpful during my career, when different jobs and challenges emerged. The great thing about recorded audio is that it will always be at your fingertips and is easily accessed from multiple devices. You can also barter this material with your study buddy i.e. swap it for other audio content or even for a great set of their written notes.

Bullet points, facts, and lists are ideal revision components that can be recorded to your phone and replayed repeatedly. Remember, you will need to repeat any learning process regularly to achieve success. Having a portable learning tool like your phone or a small hardback in your pocket is great to keep you tuned in when opportunities to catch up arise.

  1. Rotate your learning

I feel it is important to rotate the type of learning you do in order to keep the brain fresh and interested. When you sit down at the start of the week to plan your Lifestyle (Study) Timetable, rotate your learning in each study block. This rotation tricks the brain into going longer. You should even rotate your place of study: for example, study a specific topic in the garden, it will make it easier to recall what you revised there, since you have created an association with this part of your home. Rotation could also involve going down the road to your grandparents or your local library to write some essays or update your hardback. Initiatives like this maintain freshness in your preparation. These ensure each homework or revision session gets the attention it deserves. A change is as good as a rest!

Rotating your learning is achieved by using multiple ways to take in and understand material and notes. There are so many ways you can acquire Information these days. Rotate your learning between reading, writing notes, developing summaries, listening to podcasts, recording something you have learned into your phone, playing back lists through your headphones, searching the Internet, reading out loud, getting someone to examine you, watching educational YouTube videos, watching educational tv programmes, watching ted talks, creating flashcards, summary hardbacks, using postits, sticking key notes up on your wall, underlining and highlighting or discussing a sub-topic with your friends in a study group etc. These are just some of the learning options available to you, which you could and should be using. Select and practice a number of these in order to try and find out what works for you. After that, rinse and repeat the winning formula. Good luck. Joe

‘Don’t let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do.’

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for 5th & 6th Year (Leaving Certificate Students) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books for all students can be found via the links:

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

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Joe’s Jotter: RIGHT it out by WRITING it out

With a lot of schools switching to iPads and tablets as a mode of Education, the debate rages about which type of notes is best to have from a classroom lecture i.e., typed or handwritten ones. I still think there is a question mark about learning content in digital format, with it being more suitable in some subjects than others. If a student has the possibility of printing something out, in my opinion they should do. With decent printers just over €50, I feel this is a great long-term investment for parents of children at Secondary School.

From listening to students, I think many of them still like to hold a hard copy book in their hand when learning. Even as an ICT teacher myself, I believe that the old-fashioned way of taking notes by hand is still best. Since we now can type faster than we write, students are tending to type notes verbatim (exactly to the word) as they try to keep up with their teacher. We are copying down a lot of the teacher’s language directly. There would be more of our own language than the teacher’s used in a handwritten set of notes, which makes them easier to understand and ultimately, of better quality. The following case for handwritten notes applies to both Secondary and Third level education…

Why handwritten notes are still the market leader…

  • With handwritten notes, we spend more time thinking about the Information before the actual physical act of writing occurs. If we are attempting to type everything exactly as spoken, there is less thinking time about that same information. In essence, I believe that slightly more learning takes place during the actual handwriting process.
  • Keywords are valuable in any content. When you are taking down notes by hand in a lecture/class, you are listening out for the keywords to ensure you are grasping the bones of the sentence. Again, while typing you are trying to get everything down and so your brain misses out on this ‘essential keyword focus’.
  • When handwriting notes, you are putting your own special stamp on them, making it easier to recall information you have translated into your own words.
  • During class, you can link handwritten notes quicker with bubbles and arrows. While doing this, you are learning what the connections are in the teachers’ content.
  • Above all, writing your own notes engages the mind and prompts new ideas and thoughts. It enables your brain to switch to ‘background learning’ mode while you prepare and enhance your notes.

Learning in a variety of ways is the key to success. Working with a study buddy or group is another way that many don’t consider. Students can swap essays and notes, and indeed even teach each other. Upon swapping these notes with friends, they should rewrite them into understandable Information, in order to be able to revise them better later. I am a big believer in summarising your own notes. By all means you can work in a group or with a ‘study buddy’, but once you get their essays or interpretation of topics; highlight and underline their key points. The final piece of the puzzle is summing their content into your own words, to ensure that you really understand it. In my experience, there is a much higher chance of Information sticking with personal and individualised handwritten notes – the old ways are still the best. Try it and see! Good luck, Joe

‘Work hard, dream big, never give up’

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for 5th & 6th Year (Leaving Certificate Students) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books for all students can be found via the links:

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

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Joe’s Jotter: The Benefits of After School Study for Your Child

I am a big advocate of after school study with many schools now running it after class time finishes. Parents, I would highly recommend you enrol your child for these sessions (assuming it is affordable for you). I believe that (from second year upwards) this daily routine will help them settle into positive habits of completing their homework and getting some revision done each day.

Here are my top ten reasons to engage in regular after school study:

  1. Quiet Place

In this noisy world, it can be difficult to find quiet times in the home; meals to be cooked, chores to be done and siblings running around. At school study, students are assured of quiet time to concentrate and put goals and preparation in place for what’s upcoming that week.

  1. Learning Environment

Being in school, students are in the place they are used to learning in. In the study hall, they will be assigned a proper table and chair with good heating and lighting for sessions. Their study environment at home may not be as good. Study in school could turn out to be more productive than efforts to concentrate at home. Their friends studying with them in the hall may provide extra motivation also, fostering a ‘we are all in this together’ group attitude.

  1. Proper Supervision

After school study will usually be supervised by one of the subject teachers (who students will know), and this ensures they will be required to get on with their work and revision during the session. It may also be handy to have someone knowledgeable present that they can ask questions of if they are unsure about homework or notes. 

  1. Homework Opportunities

After school study should be looked at as an opportunity to get all homework of the day done to a high standard. Exam students should always complete every piece of homework like an exam question. I view homework as the best form of study.

  1. Revision Blocks

Sometimes if a day contains free class periods, much of the day’s homework may already be finished. In this case, students should set out two or three study blocks of thirty minutes in after school study to maximise their revision time. Getting some extra revision done during the week will give a great sense of satisfaction for that day and will take pressure off their workload for other days that week (including your weekend). After school study is the ideal place for this preparation.

  1. Home Unsuitability

Sometimes good quality study and revision at home may not be feasible; there may be just too much going on. Parents knowing that their children have these extra hours in school will be reassured of genuine work being done and can of course check in on this with teachers.

  1. Catch-up Time

Just before after school study is a great time to get notes from your buddies for any classes you may have missed over the previous few days. Prior to study, you will have a chance to discuss with them what homework needs to be done and clarify any issues for the next day’s school also.

  1. Leisure Time

Putting a big effort into after school study should leave you with more free time when you get home. Even during the week, every student needs a little bit of down time, whether that be, going to the cinema, visiting friends, playing sport, or just hanging out. This free time should be viewed by parents as a reward for their child’s efforts during the day.

  1. Minimal Distractions

After school study is now even more important given the emergence of the smart phone. As you well know, social media and phone access is a big distraction now, especially when trying to revise at home. Not having devices in after school study will make it much easier for your child to concentrate on tasks at hand without being disturbed by notifications.

  1. Early Finish

Going into after school study soon after classes finish will ensure all homework will be completed earlier in the evening. This should improve productivity with their mind being fresher at this time. It should also give more opportunities for family meals and getting into good sleeping habits during the week. Joe.

‘Do not Ignore the subjects you are good at. Nurture them too.’

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for 5th & 6th Year (Leaving Certificate Students) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books for all students can be found via the links:

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

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Joe’s Jotter: How to Become More Competent in Maths 2022

Grasping a subject of difficulty is always a big challenge for even the best students. One of those subjects is too often Mathematics. Maths seems to have developed a ‘bad boy cred’ over the last twenty years, but I feel things are getting better slowly and I know students feel more positive about it since the introduction of Project Maths in 2008. In general, I think students are enjoying the more practical approach in the subject since these changes. The existing course is however still quite long, and you need to box clever in order to pin it down. Many students are still trying to come to terms with the number of words on Maths exam papers and indeed how they link to the concepts. I totally get this. However, I still believe you can learn to grasp the key concepts without being born a Maths genius.

Can Anyone Be Successful at Maths?

People regularly ask me about this, and I believe Maths is a subject everyone can do well in by being willing to try different methods. For sure, parents have a role to play here, so students should get them involved. Parents can get involved in homework from an early age and should be encouraged to send notes to the teacher if there is a particular area their child is struggling with. Above all, it is imperative that Parents pass on a positive attitude about Maths early on. A ‘can do’ attitude gives the student belief that they can face problems in the subject and come through them. Encouragement and positivity are the most constructive way any parent can help boost their child’s ‘Maths conviction’.

Maths is Learning by Doing

To me, Maths is a subject where you need to be continuously ‘learning by doing’ and the importance of attempting exam style questions cannot be underestimated. Reading through questions and text like you do in other subjects will not work in Maths. Having access to a structured solution book for exam questions is important. Inevitably with some challenging questions in the subject, you will run into difficulties getting started and this is where having the first line or two of the solution can be extremely helpful; a detailed solutions book is ideal for this. I believe that referring to the first part of a solution and then revisiting the question yourself is a very efficient way of developing key Maths skills. This technique isn’t one much practiced in other subjects, but Maths is unique in itself as we know.

Skills That will Improve Your Maths

You must adopt different approaches to improve success in Maths. A genuine attempt to start a question in Maths will allow you to gain momentum and progress to apply the concepts you have learned in class. In my experience, the biggest stumbling block to achievement in Maths is getting the question started; but a single grain of rice can tip the scales. In general, if you are finding it difficult to get started and feel lost in Maths, start by practicing the part (a) questions in your past exam papers and work your way upwards to part (b) and so on. If you are an exam student, go back on your 2nd or 5th year notes to refresh those key basics. The majority of students just fire notes from previous years in a corner. Past notes should be stored carefully for ease of access later. It’s amazing how much you will recall about what you wrote down and what advice your teacher gave you back then. This is a good starting point. As you always hear me say, Algebra is jewel in the crown at all levels. Maths is about having a go, knowing the tricks, when to use formulae, consistent practice and really believing in your ability and the work you have done. Joe

“The harder you work, the luckier you get. Every effort will open a door.”

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for 5th & 6th Year (Leaving Certificate Students) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books for all students can be found via the links:

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

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Photo:@ZhangChaosheng

Joe’s Jotter: Guidance on How to Boost Your Motivation

Students, did you find being at home all the time during lockdown with no teachers or fellow students to encourage and motivate you challenging? Most did in fairness. Even us adults struggled greatly with the situation. The reality, however, is that a good chunk of your preparation will be done ‘home alone’ no matter what the circumstances. There are plenty of things you can do to maintain high spirits and decent motivation levels, both for home and school time. Have a read of this feature article and pick out two or three things you can implement that might improve your motivation levels and your attitude towards schoolwork and the homework/revision you do each evening.

Set up a Lifestyle (Study) Timetable

Firstly, set up a Lifestyle (Study) Timetable with all different subjects, different subtopics, and different ways of learning each day. Start with a trial run for three days and tweak it as you go along. Secondly, challenge the brain to perform different types of tasks every thirty minutes, whether that be taking notes, writing bullet points, watching a YouTube video, listening to an audio file, or discussing a sub-topic on the phone with your friend. Variation in stimulus will trick the brain into maintaining concentration for longer. Mixing the above with regular breaks will alleviate boredom and increase productivity. These are definitely two starting points to help drive the desire to be more successful, whether that be in a small class test or the final state exams for exam years.

Improving your Motivation at Home

Maintaining high motivation levels is an important element of getting any task completed. The first thing to realise is that you can achieve any goal by discovering ways to motivate yourself. The way we converse can sometimes reflect our motivation levels and can also increase them intrinsically, without us even knowing. Highly motivated individuals will use words like ‘could’, ‘will’, ‘may’, ‘like to’ as opposed to ‘must’, ‘won’t’, ‘can’t’ and ‘need to’. Writing, considering and repeating positive sentences out loud can improve motivation and reset a positive mind-set. Here are some examples of these sentences in the context of your new academic year. You should re-write these into the back of your journal to reflect your own current situation and attitudes:

  • I want to start preparing myself for the upcoming class tests and Christmas exams.
  • I need to put a structured timetable in place.
  • I’d like to get into Third level when I complete school.
  • I should get my head in the books this week.
  • I must start working hard to reach my short-term goals.
  • I can achieve whatever I want through hard work.
  • I will deliver brilliant exam scripts in this year’s Junior/Leaving Cert.
  • I will get organised and sort this out step by step.
  • I know that I have plenty of ability.
  • I must organise to share study notes with my friends.
  • I can be as positive and as focused as anyone in my class and year.
  • I am a good all-rounder.
  • I am well able to take on this challenge.
  • I am a force to be reckoned with.
  • If it’s meant to be, it’s up to me.

Hearing about the study habits of others on Instagram or Snapchat can be a positive thing. Instead of feeling guilty about not being currently highly driven; use it to motivate yourself. The fact that there is someone out there competing against you, who wants your college place, should get you going and make you more determined.

Another motivating factor for this year’s Junior and Leaving Certs is its length. The length of the school year is just nine months. You only really need to raise your game for that short period. Do you fancy repeating the year while your friends head off to college or employment? Not too appealing I would imagine. Again, don’t ignore these thoughts; instead use them as the driving factor every morning to ‘get started’.

It’s a nice idea to copy down your motivations into the back of your school journal, having a glance at them whenever you find yourself losing interest in your work. Having a role model friend who is very driven can also help you to fulfil your potential. Talk to as many former exam students as you can to find out how they navigated their path. Above all, I want you to compete against yourself and not anyone else. Use your previous results, grades, and recent comments from your teachers to strive for something more. Just improve on your last test result!

Accept the Things You Currently Cannot Change

As this point in time, you need to reflect a little about what kind of a start you have made to the year.  Ask yourself now, “Am I on track to deliver a performance when the big day arrives?”, “Will I feel better or worse if I do absolutely nothing over the next week?” It is worth remembering that you cannot change the past and it shouldn’t limit you either. This week is a good time to start. I always remind my students that you can only shape your future through present actions. Start again tomorrow if today didn’t go so well. Move on and accept. For me, the prayer of serenity comes to mind here:

“Accepting the things, I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference”

Having a bad day may commence a negative thought process: “I’ll drop down to pass or foundation to concentrate on other subjects”. You need to guard against one lapse destroying your desire to achieve at a given subject. A bad day is not a bad week and remember that this is a long-term project. However, there are things that you can control, including, keeping yourself as healthy as possible by eating well, exercising and completing those timetabled revision blocks you put in place.

In summary, find out what motivation techniques work for you and repeat them. Try not to worry about what you cannot control. Your job at this time of year is to settle into a good revision routine at home and to listen as best you can in class. You can only do your best, so try not to be too hard on yourself. Joe

“It’s never too late to step into your own greatness!”

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2023) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

Joe’s Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/JoeMcCormackEducationalExpert

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Photo:@ZhangChaosheng

Joe’s Jotter: My ACE Pointers to Help Students Settle Back into Revision

Students,

As we reach the end of our first month in school, you may be struggling to return to some kind of a revision routine. Here are six useful signposts for all students to get you back into the swing of completing homework and revising classwork.

  1. Take regular breaks.

Yes, really! Taking short five-minute breaks every thirty minutes should keep you fresh and focused. However, make sure that five minutes doesn’t turn into an hour! Go for a short walk, call up a friend or have a snack and then come back to your work on time. Some studies have found that having a natter with friends can have a positive effect on memory and that laughing increases serotonin (the body’s chemical that makes you happy). It is important to leave your study area during your breaks to get a change of perspective and return with renewed energy for the next session. Enjoyable breaks will allow you to become more efficient with your study blocks. Setting mini targets like completing a long exam question followed by a prolonged break is a smart way to operate.

  1. Stay alert and interested.

When reading, it is a good idea to make notes or highlight key terms. I believe you should always revise with a pen at hand. I feel that just by reading a piece of text, you are not actively engaging with it. In my experience, you will remember more by summarising it or even just by making red or green sub notes on the page. This method keeps the brain tuned in to the task at hand. Other learning methods you might consider for variety include YouTube videos, online quizzes, or creating mind maps. If you find yourself struggling to stay alert, you are probably tired, and it may be time for a break or retirement for the evening.

  1. Be ruthless with your notes.

Many students go to educational institutions after Christmas to boost their store of materials and, of course, their confidence. However, I have seen many students over the years become overwhelmed with too much material and they just end up getting swamped, not knowing where to start. In subject areas you find difficult, reduce your material into manageable, thought-provoking snippets. If you take notes in class, make sure to date and keep them for revision later. Dig out last year’s material requiring revision at this point. It is important to keep a record of what topics you have done in class and how long your teacher has spent on them. This will ensure you are clear on what has been covered and what still needs to be investigated. Being persistently consistent in relation to your notes is a big factor in doing well in exams.

  1. Set goals and keep records.

Setting goals will help you monitor your study and will give you something to work towards. If you under perform in a class test, set a mini goal for your next test to improve by a certain percentage. In your school journal, write down all your goals and check them off as you complete them – name it a ‘Junior Cycle or Leaving Cert bucket list’. Ultimately, use long-term goals to motivate you to ACE the short-term ones. Long-term goals might include a points target in your Leaving Certificate, a possible trip to third level or scoring that rewarding job later. A short-term goal will help you get where you want to be long term. Reviewing the success of your short-term goals every two weeks will give you a sense of achievement. An example of a short-term goal could involve summarising and understanding a chapter from your book and completing a past exam question relating to it. All my successful students over the years have created plans and set goals for themselves.

  1. Earn your rewards.

Don’t forget to ‘have a life’ as you develop a routine that works for you. Reward yourself after a long study session with a trip to the cinema or visit to your friends. Ultimately, reward yourself with breaks, taking a reasonable one after every good hour’s work. There is nothing wrong with the odd bar of chocolate, ice-cream, or packet of gummy bears; everyone who has done something constructive deserves a little thank you. Earn rewards with each thorough revision session you complete. This will Increase motivation and improve your overall revision output.

  1. Start thinking about Past Exam papers.

Those of you in Exam years: Are you familiar with the layout of each exam paper and its marking scheme? If not, you need to get checking. You can source all the past exam papers in the ‘Examinations Material Archive’ section of the examinations.ie website. If you are doing exams in 2023 and haven’t a set of exam papers for each subject, don’t delay, get them today. A large part of your revision should be to assess and practice answering questions from past exam papers (under time pressure) on the topics you have covered in class. Remember also that each subject’s exam paper is different, so you need to familiarise yourself in each subject. You need to find out the exact layout and style of each individual paper. Is there a choice in sections? How many questions do you need to attempt in each section? Are there short/long questions or both? And most importantly, how long can you plan to spend on each individual question? Being super familiar with paper layout is key. Joe

‘Eat that Elephant, chunk by chunk, bit by bit, step by step.’

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2023) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

Joe’s Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/JoeMcCormackEducationalExpert

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Joe’s Jotter: How 2nd and 3rd Years Can Make the Most of their Evenings

Students, as we come towards the end of the first few weeks back in Secondary School, it is important now that you get into a routine of homework and revision, both during the week and at the weekend. Breaks are important for all students who are putting effort in at home each night, as well as giving yourself some wind down time before bed also. Over the next few months, try and improve the standard of your homework. Always take pride in how you complete written homework. Doing homework like a mini exam is the best form of preparation for your any upcoming tests. Here are four more practical tips you can try to get the more out of your evenings.

Be positive

Being positive will vastly improve your attitude towards study and therefore its quality. You should always focus on what you have studied, what you have learned or what you know as opposed to continually looking at what needs to be done. When you come across an awkward question, you need to box it off properly in your mind. Instead of thinking, “we haven’t covered this!” or “how is this relevant to what I know?”, you need to reflect on how it links into your subject, topics within the subject and what your teacher has taught you in class.

The same goes for studying prior to the exam. Take control by changing the way you speak about your preparation. Instead of saying “I should be studying more”; be good to yourself and say, “Well I did a solid two hours this morning and will go back to it tonight”. Change “I should be…” to “I’m going to…” Research has shown that positive language can lead to more positive results. If you say: “I can’t climb that wall”, you are less likely to succeed in the task, as your brain has almost been auto programmed to fail. As a Maths teacher, I love this equation of positivity:

Positive attitude + Positive actions = Powerful results

Look after your eyes

You will be doing plenty of reading from textbooks, summary notes, post-its, flashcards and the likes over the next few years, so it is important to look after your eyes during this period. The expert’s advice on reducing eye strain is to apply the twenty-twenty-twenty rule. That is to take twenty seconds to look at something twenty feet away and repeat this every twenty minutes. Going outside on your breaks will get some fresh air to the eyes. Another good exercise is to simply rest your eyes in the palm of your hands for a few minutes, making sure that no light gets through. Too much time on devices wouldn’t be great for keeping your eyes fresh. Just saying!

Rotate your learning

The brain can only concentrate on a subject matter for a certain time period. At times, when I was penning my ACE Study Guidebook, I needed to get away and come back to it in order to maintain my focus. Rotate your work between memorising content, writing, oral work, audio, Internet research and watching documentaries etc. Most importantly, rotate your subjects. We all enjoy discovering about subjects we find interesting, but it is so important not to forget the subjects you find difficult or the ones you are just not as interested in. Rotation of stimulus will trick the brain into performing better and going for longer.

Become an active learner

During study sessions, always have a pen and a highlighter to hand. You should mark the key points onto your textbook, write brief comments at the side of the page or underline the important sentences. This information should then be transferred to a summary page later. I really like this method of revision as it reduces the quantity (amount) of notes you have to analyse and there shouldn’t be a need to revisit that part of your textbook again. Active learning is a great way to keep yourself tuned into what you are studying. Spend time thinking about how you can use your life experiences and places visited to enhance essays or answers with a few extra bells and whistles. Individuality and drawing on your personal experiences are what every Teacher and examiner is looking out for in your answers. You need to try and stand out a bit from your fellow students.

Next weeks ‘Joe’s Jotter’ will provide students with six ACE pointers to settle them back into revision. Don’t miss it. To view last week’s feature article on ‘How to Perform Well in Subjects you Find Difficult’, click here. Get in touch if I can help you in any way. Joe.

‘Record all revision done so you can track whats what later.’

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2023) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

Joe’s Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/JoeMcCormackEducationalExpert

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Photo:@ZhangChaosheng

Joe’s Jotter: Performing Well in Difficult Subjects (Case Study – Maths)

As you settle into the new year, teachers and parents totally understand that even though you are making great strides, you still have plenty of fears. From speaking with students over the years, I find it’s not the full set of exams that cause concern, it is usually only one or two subjects. Naturally everyone has their own talents and subjects they prefer. Personally, I was better at the Sciences than the languages, but I persevered and got the grades I wanted in the languages I chose.

Sometimes subjects you are not looking forward to are the ones that have you on guard and you end up doing better in; A paper on the day can go well in an exam you were dreading. I regularly hear welcome surprise coming from students on results day, with comments such as “I didn’t expect that result in xxxxx”. The moral of the story here is that too much concern about a subject could end in false worry and be draining you of energy; energy you need for revising all subjects and getting your head space right.

Preparing for one of your less favoured subjects is a blatant case of having to ‘get on with it’. Of course, it is easier to revise and work on subjects you enjoy and are good at, but you must not ignore the others. Studying and preparing the ‘frog subjects’ is probably the biggest challenge you will face in school. You must prioritise these subjects on your weekly ‘Lifestyle Study Timetable’. I will detail how to setup this timetable in a later blog feature. Author and reconstructive surgeon, Jack Penn, once said:

“One of the secrets in life is making steppingstones out of stumbling blocks”.

Building Confidence in Maths

Maths is one of those subjects that many students find difficult. To me Maths is about grafting to understand the basics, building your confidence, and not being prepared to give up easy. Always start by attempting the easier topic questions (usually the part a’s and b’s) and subsequently graduating to the part c’s and d’s. You should check your work as you go against a good quality solutions book and thus be constantly ‘learning by doing’. Here are some of my top tips to improve your performance in Maths (and its exam) at any level.

Joe’s Top Tips for Success in Maths

  1. Put formulas, explanation of words and keynotes into a little pocket notebook.
  2. Practice as many past exam questions as you can and check your answers against a fully developed and explained solutions book.
  3. Challenge yourself to try and come up with a second method of doing questions.
  4. Try to approach each question from different angles. Always write down something. Do not be afraid of making a mistake.
  5. Draw a diagram (if possible) and label it to simplify a question.
  6. Be familiar with what is and what is not in your log tables.
  7. When studying, exhaust all attempts to answer an exam question before referring to your solutions book. Do not give up easily.
  8. Read each question in Maths carefully underlining the key words and phrases.
  9. At all levels, if you feel overwhelmed by the length and difficulty of the course – start with basic Algebra
  10. Find yourself a study buddy to share questions and resources with. Discuss problems with each other and encourage.
  11. Use various Internet sites as a companion to improve your Maths skills.
  12. Consult your teacher about problems with topics or specific Maths questions during and after class.
  13. Start by attempting basic questions for each Maths topic, building up to a full exam question. Answer the exact question being asked.
  14. The word FAIL in Maths for me means First Attempt In Learning
  15. Do not be afraid to explain a solution to a question with words if you cannot do so with numbers and symbols.
  16. Spend five to ten minutes daily going over what you have learned in class that day.
  17. Every time you write down a formula, draw a box around it to help you remember it. Check if this formula is in your log tables. If not, you need to memorise it.
  18. Anything that you type into your calculator (related to a question) must be written on your answer book/copy also.
  19. Have all resources present when doing Maths questions i.e. Full Maths set, pencil, calculator, and log tables.
  20. 3rd and 6th Years, practice as many previous exam questions as you possibly can.
  21. Rewrite sample questions given in your textbook to get an understanding of the basics.
  22. It is ok to look at a solution to a question if you have tried your best to solve it alone. Use the answer to figure out the exact method for the question. Re-do it without help.
  23. Work with groups of friends on harder Maths questions. Bounce ideas off each other in order to understand and learn from their thinking.
  24. Always write out every single step of your answer. This will be easy to look back, revise and follow later.
  25. Talk positive about subjects you find difficult. Don’t throw away your shot at success by talking your way into failure.

In next week’s Joe’s Jotter, I will advise 2nd and 3rd year students on how to restart their revision routine. Don’t miss it. To view last week’s feature article on ‘How to Efficiently Review your Exam Scripts’, click here. Get in touch if I can help you in any way. Joe.

‘Sail on the Seas of ambition and land on the shore of success.’

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2023) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

*****

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Photo:@ZhangChaosheng

Joe’s Jotter: The Best Ways to Navigate Secondary for a Student with SEN

 

Students who have Special Educational Needs (SEN) can struggle with various different tasks each day at Secondary School. As teachers and parents of first year students, we want to make their transition to Secondary School as smooth as possible.

The Additional Educational Needs (AEN) Coordinator manages resources for the one in four students (ESRI, 2017) who benefit from support that goes beyond standard classroom teaching. Resource Teachers provide such support and often facilitate learning in small groups or on a ‘one to one’ basis. Practical supports are provided by Special Needs Assistants (SNA’s) to allow some students access the curriculum as independently and inclusively as possible. Many schools have autistic classes where ‘best practice’ in inclusion means that autistic students are supported by the whole school community to develop their strengths, meet their potential and enjoy school life alongside siblings and peers.

This feature article should provide some sapient advice on how you can help your child navigate their day-to-day engagements more seamlessly. It also contains some useful advice and informative recommendations for Parents of Students with SEN that are already attending Secondary School (2nd Years upwards). As I see it, the support they require is twofold: ‘Home’ Support and ‘School’ Support.

 The ‘Home’ Support

  1. Photocopy their timetable, have copies in their locker, on the fridge, in their journal and for their pocket.
  2. Photocopy their bus ticket. Have a spare ticket in their school bag, at home and in their school locker in case it is misplaced.
  3. Get colour coordinated folders. Give each subject a colour. For example, all English related work and notes goes into a green folder. Put a green sticker on the English textbook and English copies and colour code ‘English’ green on their timetable. If you have a map of the school, then the room where English class takes place should also be shaded green. Everything ‘English’ related is green and so on for each subject.
  4. If using a locker key, make multiple copies and get a springy key chain so that they can attach it to a loop on their pants or skirt. Alternatively, use a combination lock and get them to memorise the code between now and the start of school. Mark with nail varnish or spray paint to make it brighter and easier for them to see their property from a distance.
  5. Have a stash of spare copies and additional stationery material in a cupboard at home. Let them know where it is, so that they can draw on it as things go missing or get filled up.
  6. Have a morning checklist on the fridge for: books, lunch, keys, jacket, PE gear etc.
  7. If possible, arrange for them to tour the school before day one. It is also a good idea to do a trial run of their trip to school to get an idea of the route and timing. This will avoid any travel trauma’s during week one. Leaving extra time, if possible, is wise of course.

The ‘School’ Support

  1. If possible, arrange that they meet as many of their subject teachers and year head prior to starting back or as soon as is possible. This gives them certainty about who will be working with and helping them this year.
  2. Look into having a safe and reliable person that they can approach for help and advice in school on a daily basis.
  3. If they have a Special Needs Assistant (SNA), make sure that person has a copy of their colour coordinated timetable, a spare locker key and a copy of the bus-ticket. Provide this person with anything else that might smooth the transition back to school for your child.
  4. Make it your business to get to know your child’s Assistant Principals and Class Tutor as soon as the year commences. Connecting with teachers is always a good start to any year.
  5. Have a notebook that they can write in during the day in case they find something challenging. Both of you can reflect on it together when a suitable time during the week arises, in order to see what challenges might need to be overcome.
  6. For the first hour each evening, allow them to breathe and relax when they get home. Do not expect them to talk immediately after school. It is advisable to allow them some quiet wind-down time first.
  7. Advise them to choose/request a Locker at eye level and at the end of a row. This is so important, as all their classmates and other classes may be scheduled to go to their lockers together, leading to mayhem at times. Having to reach down with people blocking their path can be especially challenging for someone with social or communication difficulties. This is definitely one practical suggestion that will ensure they are on time for each class and that they can get access to the correct materials for each class quickly also.
  8. Encourage them to link up with a buddy or designated person in each subject class, so they can text them to find out what homework they have, should the need arise.
  9. If they are using a laptop, most Secondary School books now come with a code written inside to allow the eBook version of it to be uploaded digitally. This means they can leave more books at school each day, lightening their load.
  10. Getting to know the school secretary, for both you and your child is very worthwhile, as this person will have an awareness of who your child is and what their challenges are etc. With high volumes of traffic, any extra support or eyes around the Secondary School environment can help greatly for those who struggle in various practical ways.
  11. Be aware that your child may get side-tracked at times, realising then that their class is already gone to the next period. This actually happened to me in first year and it’s not a good feeling. Talk to them about what to do in this scenario. Again, an idea for them might be to go to secretaries office. Talking through a few of these little potential situations can really ease their mind as they will retain a visual of what to do should they occur.

To view last week’s feature article on ‘Transitioning to 1st Year from Primary’, click here.

‘Sometimes, if you don’t take a risk, succeeding may become difficult.’

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2023) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books are available below.

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

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Photo:@ZhangChaosheng

Joe’s Jotter: Useful Insights for Parents on…Secondary School Maths

 

I think it may be interesting for both students and parents to consider the following observations I have become aware of in Maths over the last number of years. Maths is a very emotive subject, and everyone has their own way of understanding and practicing it. This presents its own set of difficulties. The below insights and observations should help you as a parent to reach out and help your child with Maths in a more positive way. Read on…

The Second Year Maths Dip

Firstly, in general, I have noticed that some of my students (and those of my colleagues) experience a slight dip in performance in Maths during their second year in secondary school. This is partly due to workload and the fact that the first-year common course is quite basic. This dip for girls is not as pronounced as for boys. There is also a drop off in fifth year, but it isn’t as extreme as the second year one. If your child is heading into second year, you need to be aware that this could be the case for them. I believe that working diligently on their algebra, fractions, and general numeracy (external to the calculator) are the key elements to overcoming barriers. These topics are the three main pillars of Junior Cycle Maths and underpin and are linked to every other topic on the course.

We all need to keep in mind that online learning has not suited some students and that they have missed out on that key face-to-face contact with teachers, especially in Maths. As a parent, it is important that you encourage positivity around this subject and remind them that every student in the country is in the same boat. From a personal point of view, I noticed that last year’s Junior Cycle class did struggle (more than usual) with a variety of topics, but it did eventually come together for them in the end. I expect that the incoming third year cohort will take a while to settle back (through no fault of their own) this year. In fairness, it may take many of them until after Christmas before they settle down into a pattern of revision and work across all subjects. It is understandable that they may not hit the ground running this year and we all need to be cognisant of this.

Girls – Go for it!

From the students I have taught since the Project Maths syllabus was introduced in 2008, I have noticed another trend in my classes. I have spotted that female students are less likely to take risks when attempting past exam questions. The new phrasing of questions on Maths papers suit boys better, as they are less conscious of what they are writing down and are less afraid of being wrong. In my opinion, it is important for girls to express their opinions freely and openly and we, as teachers, need to help them develop this skill. I think it is important for all students not to get unduly perturbed if they cannot get a certain part of a question out perfectly. In Maths now, it is more important to go onto another question (within the allotted time), instead of looking to complete every single question part absolutely perfect.  I feel that Churchill’s (not the dog) quote is quite apt for our modern day Maths syllabus.

“Perfection is the enemy of Progress”.

Winston Churchill (Former Prime Minister of the UK)

One does not really have time for 100% perfection on a Maths paper as they tend to be ‘question packed’, and unlike other subjects, there isn’t time for admiring your work. Students should apply this principle across the board to all their Maths tests in 2022/23.

The New Practical Style Questions

Thirdly, girls especially need to practice more exam questions involving engineering and mechanical parts. My reasoning for this is that, in general, most of the student cohort studying Engineering, Construction studies and Design/Communication Graphics (DCG) at Leaving Certificate are boys, and girls are not being exposed to this specific type of learning. With more everyday life practical questions being the order of the day in Maths, it is inevitable that more technical and mechanical questions will appear in years to come, and girls and parents of girls need to be aware of this. This trend will slowly become more pronounced if the Governments’ promotion and focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) subjects continues and I expect it will.

Always Follow Your Passion

Lastly, in a survey conducted a few years ago, twenty-nine percent of Irish parents surveyed thought that technology subjects weren’t suitable for girls and fifty-three percent of girls in secondary school dropped STEM subjects due to pressure from their parents. These statistics may be contributing to the lack of representation of females working in STEM. Students and parents need to be aware of the excellent third level courses and future career opportunities available in these areas for both genders. Students need to be encouraged to explore all avenues of interest and follow their passions. Pursuing a spinoff of the subjects that a student enjoys each day in school wont set them too far wrong. Joe

**You can achieve more than you actually expect.**

 

To view last weeks feature article on ‘Transitioning into 1st Year or back to school’, click here.

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2023) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

 

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Joe’s Jotter: Wholesome Summer Foddering for Students

 

Summer is a time for rest and reflection. As a student, do you ever think about your diet and the foods you eat? Do you go overboard on the junk food at times? Here are some pointers to read and have a think about as we approach mid-summer 2022. This article is not to lecture you, but rather to make you think about little adjustments you could make to ensure you are giving your body and mind the best possible chance as a new academic year approaches.

Target One or Two Improvements

Rather than aiming to overhaul your diet and what you eat, start by targeting one specific area for improvement before the new academic year kicks off. This should be something that is most relevant to you and is changeable, for example, breakfast. If you are someone who doesn’t eat a healthy breakfast, you could start by prioritising that. As you become more consistent with that meal, you can work on other mini targets, like eating more fruit and vegetables or reducing sugary drinks. It is important to be realistic about what you wish to achieve and give yourself a reasonable time period to achieve it.

Progress on any changes made should be judged over several weeks (rather than days), as new habits take time to form. Get a shopping list together and ask your parents to stock the fridge and freezer with specific whole foods. The more whole and natural a food is, the better. For example, a beetroot unpackaged and untouched is far better than a jar of sliced beetroot. You get the idea. If you can do a bit of cooking for yourself, you will never go hungry. Minor improvements to the quality of food you consume will help improve your concentration and focus going forward. Indeed, we all could do with that. More importantly for you, this will allow you to make a fast start for Term 1 in September.

You won’t go to far wrong by increasing your intake of fruit and vegetables for the remainder of the holidays. This will help you build up resistance to any bugs flying around come autumn time. Eating as many different coloured vegetables as you can is the secret to providing plenty of nutrients for your body. If you do opt for a takeaway (as is ok at times of course), cook some homemade vegetables to eat on the side. This balances the books a little and ensures you are still getting important vitamins and minerals.

Hydrate as Best You Can

Firstly, it’s important to know that your weight affects your fluid needs. You should drink 35ml of fluid daily for every kilogramme you weigh. For example, a 70kg (11 stone approx.) person should drink 2.45 litres per day. The recommended daily amount of water for a teenager is two litres, which works out at around at eight to ten glasses. The recommendation is to drink more than this if the day is particularly hot or if you are exercising. Research on athletes has shown that a two percent drop in hydration can lead to thirty percent drop in performance. This applies to any activity requiring a certain level of focus. It is also worth noting that a person’s body is made up of 50-60% water.

Water is the best form of hydration, and the benefits of water are well documented. Water increases energy, flushes out toxins, improves skin complexion, boosts the immune system, prevents cramps, balances the body’s fluids, promotes digestion, and eliminates waste products. Having all these benefits working in your favour is only going to help you maintain better health. Some low sugar fruit juices, like cranberry, blueberry and apple are also good for hydration and contain enzymes and vitamins. Fizzy drinks will also increase hydration, but again are to be avoided due to their high sugar content. Other foods to improve hydration include Cucumbers, Watermelon, Pineapple, Tomatoes, Blueberries, Pear, Lettuce, and Melon. Ultimately, sipping on water throughout the day is the best way to keep your body properly hydrated.

If you get dehydrated, your concentration for revision at home or performance on the sports field will be affected. Here are four tell-tale signs that your body is dehydrated and that you need to drink more fluids:

  • Dry mouth and skin: If you are dehydrated, you may not be producing enough saliva, which will lead to a build-up of bacteria in the mouth. Acne may also occur.
  • Food cravings: The body confuses thirst for hunger sometimes. Drinking water will reduce these cravings, as it is water your body often requires not food.
  • Headaches, tiredness, and confusion: A lack of water can lead to headaches during the day. This makes it very difficult to operate to your maximum capacity. Ask yourself the question, “Am I constantly tired?” If the answer is yes, you might just be lacking water in your diet. The process of learning and retaining information has been proven to be more difficult if your body lacks fluid.
  • Urine colour: The colour of urine should be light if you are well hydrated. The average hydrated person goes to the toilet to excrete urine six to eight times daily.

To combat dehydration, bring a bottle of water with you wherever you go. Keeping bottles of cold water in the fridge at home will make it easy to ‘grab and go’ and you can sip away on it as the day progresses. It is important to note that if you feel some of the above listed symptoms, your body may already be dehydrated. Prevention is better than cure in this case. Building good hydration into your everyday routine is a great habit to implement before Septembers’ resumption in school. Summertime presents an ideal opportunity to form this important habit. Joe

**Spend Time, Energy and Effort well over the next four weeks.**

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2023) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

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Joe’s Jotter: Was your Revision Good Quality this Year?

 

Students,

Did you struggle to find the best ways to revise this year? Did you feel like your classmates were always a step ahead of you in class? Do you just read your notes aimlessly hoping you will remember some of it later? What areas of revision did you fall down on this year?

Each student learns differently. Each student needs to trial different methods until they find the ones that suit them best. Learning is most constructive when a student approaches a topic from different angles to get a better handle on it. The more ways you can approach learning, as opposed to just ‘learning off’ material, the more successful you will be.

Successful students are those who can think critically about the content presented to them. To do this, you as a student should carefully read the information presented by the author, understand it as best you can, and then begin to question and really think about it. Being critical of text doesn’t just mean being negative; it also means being knowledgeable and really assessing the quality of the information. My ACE tip here is to use your imagination, challenge the question being asked and never be afraid to offer your own personal opinion on topics. State Examiners love personal opinions, as it shows you can think independently.

In 2013, The Open University (UK) developed a ‘stairway’ model to help students understand the skills of critical thinking. Students can apply these steps to a specific topic in order to understand it better. I think this is an excellent way of actively revising, as you are reflecting on all aspects of the information presented. This method would be particularly useful in subjects like English, Economics, History, Geography and Business.  The steps are as follows:

  • Process: take in the information (i.e. in what you have read, heard, seen, or done).
  • Understand: comprehend the key points, assumptions and arguments presented.
  • Analyse: examine how these key components link together.
  • Compare: explore the similarities and differences in each idea you are reading about.
  • Synthesise: bring together different sources of information making logical connections between them.
  • Evaluate: assess the worth of an idea in terms of its relevance to your needs.
  • Apply: transfer the understanding gained and use in response to questions, assignments, and projects.
  • Justify: use critical thinking to develop arguments, draw conclusions, and identify implications.

In today’s more modern Junior and Leaving Certificate, you need to be able to apply knowledge to a topic. Learning off too much information is a common mistake made by students and is not recommended. This is the opposite of applying knowledge. There is more of an emphasis now on applying everyday life experiences to questions asked. Besides, if you were to feel nerves, you are less likely to remember a lengthy essay you have memorised.

Your revision time is better served by preparing summaries, bullet points, post-its, key points, and mind maps. The State exams are now more about identifying important information in a question and discussing its merits, as opposed to emptying the contents of your head onto the answer book. Mix the content you have revised in class with what is going on in your own life. This is something to reflect on as you plan your Autumn revision strategy in each subject.

 

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2023) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Tuition Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

*****

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Photo:@ZhangChaosheng

Joe’s Jotter: What Maths You Should Know for Higher Level Paper 2 2022

 

Leaving Higher Maths Paper 2 usually contains Probability and Stats, Trig, Geometry, Inferential Statistics and Co-ordinate Geometry, Area and Volume.

  • Your Paper 2 is on the Monday so you will have some time to look over. Again watch out for topics appearing here that should appear on Paper 2.
  • Paper 2 is more about the formula’s so use them if you are stuck
  • Label your diagrams and Label co-ordinates (x1, y1)
  • Do not get caught up in one or two topics – cover all your topics
  • Note that Financial Maths came up on P2 2018 – Be careful..
  • Proofs can be mixed between the two papers

What do you need to learn off for Paper 2?

  • Constructions Numbered 1-22
  • JCH Theorems 4, 6, 9, 14 and 19
  • LCH Theorems 11-13
  • Eight Trigonometric Identities 1-7 and 9
  • Some Statistics Terms (explain the words….‘population’, ‘sample’ etc)
  • Some Geometry Terms (explain the words…‘axiom’, ‘theorem’ etc )

See your textbook for all of these

Geometry

  • Geometry and Trigonometry often come up together
  • This idea of Similar Triangles is quite popular lately
  • There’s a bit of learning here:
  • Students need to Learn Constructions and Learn Theorems off by heart
  • Practice these and know all the steps
  • The best way to learn your proofs and constructions is to keep writing them out. Pin the ones you find difficult to remember up onto your wall. Repeat this process.
  • This could well be mixed with Trigonometry or Area and Volume
  • This is usually one short question on the paper (Section A)
  • In order to learn your proofs and constructions, keep writing them out. Pin the ones you find difficult to remember up onto your wall. Repeat this process.

Trigonometry

  • 3d Shapes are popular. The advice here is to break the shape into 2/3 triangles and solve using SOH/CAH/TOA, Pythagoras, Sin or Cosine Rule.

[Sin and Cosine Rule is in the Log Tables]

  • Be able to read the period and the range from a Periodic graph or a Periodic function
  • Be able to solve Trig Equations (this also may appear on P1 also)
  • You need to be able to prove 8 trig identities – these are listed in your textbook
  • The advice here is go over the questions from 2014-2019 as practice
  • This can be mixed with an Area and Volume Diagram or Co-ordinate Geometry
  • Triangles and Circles linked
  • Understand Trigonometric graphs including Periodic functions (period. Range etc)
  • Go over the past exam questions from 2014-2019 as practice here

Area and Volume

  • Started to get popular from 2017 onwards
  • We sometimes see combined shapes here so it’s a good idea to redraw diagrams
  • Have a look at Q7 2018 and Q7 2017 as practice
  • Can appear on Paper 1

Co-ordinate Geometry of the Line and the Circle

  • They can come up together or on their own
  • They tend to be more in Section A and could be two short questions
  • All the Important formula for these topics is on Page 18 and 19 of the log tables
  • I feel the ‘Big 3 formulas’ are Important (always have a great chance of appearing)
  1. Perpendicular distance between a point and a line
  2. Dividing a line in a given ratio
  3. Finding the angle between two lines using the Tan Formula

[ALL THREE OF THESE ARE IN THE LT]

  • Know the idea of slopes well. Slope formula (LT), m = -x/y & rise/run
  • Know the method for finding the equation of a tangent to the circle. This will involve the slope and maybe the radius of a circle
  • Be able to find the centre and radius of any circle given its equation..

Note that the equation can appear in different formats….

  • This tends to be more in Section A of Paper 2
  • Mixed with Geometry

Probability

100% chance of probability appearing…

  • Know the following three formula’s off by heart (Not in LT)…………… There is a great chance one of these will appear…..
    1. Formula for Conditional Probability – Probability of an event A occurring given that event B occurs.
    2. Formula to show that two events are independent
    3. Formula to show that two events are mutually exclusive
  • One of the following topics usually comes up every year:
    1. Bernoulli Trials (Know how to spot this & apply formula)

or

  1. Expected value of an event
    • e.g. Expected profit from A GAA club lottery
  • It doesn’t tend to be a long question (Section B) except in 2015 when it was mixed with patterns. It could be too short questions on Section A however
  • There isn’t really any help from Log Tables here so learn the above

Statistics

  • Be able to understand z scores for the normal curve
  • The Empirical rule can also appear. Symmetry is the secret to solving. Learn and practice this:
  1. 98% of the population falls within one standard deviation of the mean
  2. 95% of the population is within two standard deviations of the mean
  3. 68% of the population is within three standard deviations of the mean
  • Inferential Statistics. This is where we use the data from a small sample to assume something is true or not for the full population
  1. Know Confidence Intervals for a Sample Proportion
  2. And Know Hypothesis Testing

Both could well appear on Section A but more likely on Section B. Try and understand these as opposed to just learning off the methods like a robot

  • Know how to analyse data by measuring its middle – Mean, Median and Mode. Know about data spread – range, inter-quartile range and standard deviation.
  • Know how to analyse data by measuring its middle – Mean, Median and Mode, as well as its spread – range, inter-quartile range and standard deviation.
  • Correlation and correlation co-efficient does pop up the odd time
  • The Empirical rule does also appear every so often. See the diagram in the Log tables on Page 36. Symmetry is the secret here. Learn and practice this:
  1. 98% of the population falls within one standard deviation of the mean
  2. 95% of the population is within two standard deviations of the mean
  3. 68% of the population is within three standard deviations of the mean
  • Inferential Statistics. This is where we use the data from a small sample to assume something is true or not for the full population
  1. This is a mix of Probability and Stats
  2. This has a good chance of appearing
  3. Confidence Intervals/Hypothesis Testing or both could well appear
  4. It could appear on Section A but more likely on Section B
  • Try and understand confidence interval and hypothesis testing as best you can as opposed to just learning off the methods like a robot.

To view my recent feature article on ‘Best Practice for LC Higher Maths Paper 1’, click here.

More details about Joe as a Maths Tutor for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2022) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

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Joe’s Jotter: Shorthand Best Practice for LC Maths Paper 1

 

General Guidance for Leaving Cert Higher Maths Paper 1

  • Leaving Cert Paper 1 in Maths is on Friday 10th June so you may have two/three papers done already (Eng/Engin/Home Ec).. i.e. The bulk of the prep for Maths Paper 1 needs to be done from the week before as a result of this.
  • Paper 2 material can come up on Paper 1 and vice versa – i.e. 2015/2017 Trig Functions appeared. Financial Maths appeared on P2 in 2018 even though it’s more of a P1 topic. A&V can appear on both
  • There is no specific layout to the paper year to year – Any topic can appear anywhere.
  • Topics tend to mix together into one question. So….I wouldn’t leave any topics out
    • Example Prob/Stats and Geom/Trig
  • I wouldn’t do extra questions on the paper as you will run out of time
  • Night before exam – Check…Maths set, pencils, two alarms, your usual calculator etc
  • Only answer the question that’s being asked. Read it three times.
  • Often the answer can be hidden somewhere inside the Information given in question
  • Do not scribble or tippex out any writing and make it unreadable. Draw an X through it and make sure it is readable – this could be worth marks and will be corrected.
  • Always give your answer in the form requested in the question e.g. surd form
  • Always use the correct units.. e.g. m2 for the area of a rectangular field etc
  • Only round off your answer at the very end of the sum. Retain as much of the decimal as you can through the question to ensure accuracy and full marks.
  • If you don’t give your answer in the correct form, round off decimal places or leave out the units, you will more than likely lose one marks
  • Exams are scanned in and are then corrected by a person (examiner)
  • When revising, break the course into sections and break each section into sub-topics in order to make it more manageable to tackle. Practice loads of past exam questions.

Sample Marking Scheme Scale for LC Maths

This is an example of how the paper is marked and shows the opportunities to pick up marks depending on how many marks is allocated to each question.

LC Maths Exam Paper Layout [Red Text – 2022 only] – Paper 1 and 2

The layout is normally 6 short questions (150 marks) and 3 or 4 long questions (150 marks). This is not the layout in 2022.

  • In 2022, we have Section A: 6 short questions of thirty marks (Do 4 of these).
  • Section B: These are the more practical real life scenario Questions..4 long questions on the paper (Do 2 of these) (fifty marks each). [Both Higher and Ordinary level]
  • Even though there is a choice on both papers, I would NOT attempt an extra question in either Section A or Section B
  • My proposed Timing for 2022: (Apply the 20:30 rule for Exams 2022)
    • 10 mins to read paper and carefully choose questions at the start
    • Short Question (4) (30 marks) – Max of 20 minutes each
    • Long Questions (2) (50 marks) – Max of 30 minutes each
  • Set out a time budget plan before your exam and stick to it.

How do attempt marks (Low Partial Credit) work in Maths?

You can pick up 2/5 and 4 or 5 out of 10 for just getting one step in the right direction. This is called Low Partial Credit

  • This could just be writing down line one

OR

Writing down the correct formula and subbing a relevant value into it [‘Relevant substitution’]

OR

Bringing down the last answer and doing something sensible with it

  • Write down everything – a formula from your Log tables, a step, a piece of English, a diagram, a table anything at all. If you type something into your Calculator, write it down. The examiner will be desperate to give you 2/5 or 3/10 or 6/20 or whatever Low partial credit is for each part. They will take no pleasure at all in giving you zero.
  • You may use a different way to solve a question (with success) that’s not written on the examiners marking scheme – this is full marks.
  • If you make more than one attempt on a question, make sure to leave both visible on the paper.. Never scribble out anything. Never write a ‘?’ on your paper.
  • Draw a single line through a method you feel is incorrect, it will be checked and may be allocated marks

What if I need an answer from the previous part to answer the next part?

There are two possible scenarios’ here. If you got an answer you think may be wrong and need to use it further down the question, carry it down anyway. If you didn’t get an answer at all and need one further down, explain in a note to the examiner that you are going to guess the answer needed and use it. You might word it something like:

“I didn’t get a value for x in part a so I’m going to assume that x=10 here.”

Do this and continue on…You can still get high marks for this question

What do you do if you mind goes blank?

  1. Fill in something you have done in class related to the question being asked.
  2. Use all the Information given in the question in some way.
  3. Use a formula you think that may be relevant to the question.
  4. Any correct element to a question will give you low partial credit.

What are the core skills I cannot live without for LC Higher Maths?

  • Solving a linear and quadratic equation
  • Solve a simultaneous equation (Basic JC Method or by substitution)
  • Subbing into a formula
  • Being familiar with Log Table Formulas (See below)

Why are Log Tables so important..?

Each student will have a set of log tables on their desk when they go into the exam hall. You will not be allowed to bring in your own set of log tables. Know whats in your log tables but more importantly whats not in your log tables. Be familiar with roughly where each formula is in the tables, so you are not in a mild tizzy trying to find one. Learn off the formula’s not in your Log tables. Enter these into a hardback notebook now and start memorising them. Guidance and advice for Maths Paper 2 will follow very soon. Stay tuned to Joe’s Jotter Blog for updates. Joe

To view last week’s feature article on ‘The ACE Exam Day Quick Ref Guide’, click here.

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2022) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

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Joe’s Jotter: Exams are ‘Feeding Time at the Zoo’

 

Food provides all the essential nutrients that we require for healthy living and to fuel our daily activity. A car can work well, but if it doesn’t have any fuel it can’t go anywhere. Unfortunately for us, no single food provides all the nutrients required, so a mixture and range of different foods must be consumed in our diet. Research has shown that the healthier we eat, the better we feel and the more we can focus on tasks at hand.

When studying for exams, some students tend to stay up late and forget to eat and drink properly or maybe worse, they eat too much of the bad stuff. The following are five short exam nutrition recommendations for the next few weeks and beyond (in depth discussions about added sugar have been omitted here, with it being the obvious heralded evil).

  1. Eat something in the morning

Parents, if your child skips breakfast before school, they are more likely to be tired throughout the day and will have reduced concentration levels. If breakfast is a busy time of day in your house, then feeding your children what they need quickly might be a daunting experience, but it doesn’t have to be. By stocking up on all the ingredients you need beforehand, you can deliver quick healthy breakfasts that they will enjoy.

Alternatively, if your kids aren’t hungry or everyone is in a rush out the door, make sure there are plenty of easy-to-grab pieces of fruit, yoghurt, smoothies, and muesli bars (sugar free) that can be eaten quickly on the go. In an ideal world, everyone should sit down at the same time and share food together, although I do realise that this isn’t always possible. I feel strongly that sugary cereals are a ‘no no’. Some of these cereals can contain up to one-third added sugar. Maybe check the ingredients on cereal boxes before bringing them to the checkout and ultimately the breakfast table. 

  1. Increase ‘brain food’ intake

Proteins from lean meat, fish, eggs, fruit, nuts, and whole grains are foods that help keep the brain mentally alert. Snacking on nuts and dried fruit will help prevent concentration levels dipping. Keep in mind that fruit like bananas, blueberries, and oranges all have natural sugars that will give a lift when feeling tired. Brain food is the fuel that helps us think clearly, make good decisions, and maintain concentration when fatigue sets in during critical periods, that is, during the last half an hour of an exam.

  1. Snack as healthy as you can

Students, when your head is in the books and time is ticking by, you might be tempted to skip a meal to keep up momentum. Your brain needs food and water to keep working. Mental fatigue can cloud your brain, especially if an exam is close by. I would recommend the following healthy snacks to get you through study bumps: Whole wheat toast with peanut butter, fruit smoothies, berries, honey, dried fruit and nuts, hard boiled eggs, low fat chocolate milk or vegetables with a homemade dip. Graze away on the Guilt Free Good Stuff (GFGS) as you revise and move towards exam time.

  1. Minimise caffeine

Caffeine is a stimulant that is present in coffee and many energy drinks. Stay away from Energy drinks as they provide a false high followed by a sugar crash. Sleep can also be affected by caffeine, and I know a good few adults who abstain from caffeine after four p.m. as it disturbs their sleep. I would recommend water, peppermint tea or even a small glass of milk to aid sleep and as a healthy replacement for caffeine. 

  1. Consume ‘good’ fats

Fats are an important component of the diet and have received an enormous amount of bad publicity over the last twenty-five years. As a rough guide, saturated (bad) fats are generally solid at room temperature and tend to be animal fats (such as the fats found in butter or margarine). Unsaturated (good) fats are liquid at room temperature and are usually vegetable fats (such as olive oil, rapeseed oil, oily fish (sardines, tuna, mackerel, or salmon)). Unsaturated fats or good fats are an important nutrient for you to intake as a student. The following are other sources of Unsaturated fats: cheese, dark chocolate, eggs, nuts, coconut and coconut oil, peanut butter, pistachios, and walnuts.

Eating well and drinking plenty of water in the lead up to exams is as important as the quality of the notes you prepare prior to them. ‘You are what you eat’! Good luck. Joe

 

To view my last feature post on ‘Nifty Tricks to Remember Maths Formulas’, click here.

More details about Joe’s Maths Tuition Classes for Junior Cycle and Leaving Certificate (2022) and his Award Winning ACE Maths Solution Books can be found via the links below.

ACE Maths Classes: acesolutionbooks.com/ace-maths-tuition

ACE Maths Solution Books: acesolutionbooks.com/buy-my-books

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Photo:@ZhangChaosheng